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The state is also home to a number of historic buildings and religious sites including Hindu temples of Tamil architecture, historic hill stations, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, and eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

AD 60 – 100) gives a description of the Tamil country and its ports.

Besides these three dynasties, the Sangam era Tamilakam (Tamil homeland) was also divided into various provinces named 'nadu', meaning 'country'.

The period of their rule is sometimes referred to as the "Dark Age" in Tamil history and little is known about it.

The Kalabhras were expelled by the Pallavas, Mutharaiyar, Badami Chalukyas and Pandyas in the 6th century.

The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as Sangam literature.

Numismatic, archaeological and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about six centuries, from 300 BC to AD 300.

The recent excavations in Alagankulam archaeological site suggests that Alagankulam is one of the important trade centre or port city in Sangam Era.

Three dynasties, namely the Chera, Chola and Pandya, ruled the area of present-day Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

Chera traded extensively from Muziris on the west coast, Chola from Arikamedu and Puhar and Pandya through Korkai port.

A Greco-Roman trade and travel document, the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (c.

The evidence emerged a few years ago after a group of Aboriginal men’s Y chromosomes matched with Y chromosomes typically found in Indian men.